Headache is defined as a pain arising from the head or upper neck of the body. Headaches are extremely common. Most people have a headache at some time in their life; adult women experience more headaches than adult men; with advancing age, both women and men tend to have fewer, less severe headaches. The most common types of headache can be classified as 1) primary, 2) secondary, and 3) cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches. The most common types of primary headaches are 1) tension, 2) migraine, and 3) cluster. The pain originates from the tissues and structures that surround the brain because the brain itself has no nerves that give rise to the sensation of pain (pain fibers). In 2013, the International Headache Society released its latest classification system for headache (ICHD-III-beta version) which significantly helps health care professionals make a specific diagnosis as to the type of headache and allows better and more effective options for treatment. Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. Tension headaches occur more commonly among women than men. According to the World Health Organization, 1 in 20 people in the developed world suffer with a daily tension headache. The most likely cause is contraction of the muscles that cover the skull. Tension headaches occur because of physical or emotional stress placed on the body. Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. Migraine headaches affect children as well as adults. Before puberty, boys and girls are affected equally by migraine headaches, but after puberty, more women than men are affected. Even though the pathogenesis of migraine has extensively investigated its cause is well not known. Many trigger factors are recognized: they include hormonal changes, certain foods, beverages, strong odours, lack of sleep, and even stress. It is not uncommon to experience mixed tension-migraine headaches. Cluster headaches are a rare type of primary headache. It more commonly affects men in their late 20s though women can also suffer this type of headache. Cluster headaches are so named because they tend to occur daily for periods of a week or more with long periods of time, months to years, with no headache symptoms. The cause of cluster headaches is uncertain but may be due to a sudden release of the chemicals histamine and serotonin in the brain. The hypothalamus, an area located at the base of the brain, is responsible for the body's biologic clock and may be the location that is the source for this type of headache. Secondary headaches are those that are due to an underlying structural problem in the head. This is a very broad group of medical conditions ranging from dental pain from infected teeth to pain from an infected sinus, to life-threatening conditions like tumors or bleeding in the brain or infections like encephalitis or meningitis. Traumatic headaches fall into this category including also those headaches associated with substance abuse and excess use of medications used to treat headaches. Cranial neuralgia describes inflammation of one of the 12 nerves that supply the motor and sensation function of the head and neck. Perhaps the most commonly recognized example is trigeminal neuralgia, which affects cranial nerve V (the trigeminal nerve) and can cause intense facial pain. The patient history and physical examination provide the initial direction for determining the cause of primary as well as secondary headaches. Common tests that are considered useful in making the diagnosis include the following: blood tests; computerized tomography (CT scan); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head; and lumbar puncture (spinal tap). Treatment of headache depends on the diagnosis. Tension-type headaches are treated with drugs and in addition with alternative therapies aimed at stress reduction (Relaxation training, Biofeedback, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Massage). Migraine treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks and similarly cluster treatment includes preventive medications. Trigeminal neuralgia includes several medical and surgical treatment options (Percutaneous procedures – Trigeminal ganglion compression, Retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis-, Microvascular decompression, Radiofrequency Lesioning, Gamma-knife Radiosurgery).